In 2018 Indonesia was struck by two particularly severe natural disasters: a 7.0 magnitude earthquake in West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) on 5 August and, less than 8 weeks later- on 28 September-a 7.4 magnitude earthquake, followed by a tsunami and a rare phenomenon known as ‘soil liquefaction’, in Central Sulawesi.
In Lombok according to the National Disaster Management Authority (BNPB), 564 people died; 73,000 houses were heavily damaged, and approximately 400,000 people were displaced as a result of the earthquake; total loss is estimated at IDR 18,20 trillion (Euro 1 billion). Affected infrastructure, besides housing, includes over 600 education facilities and nearly 100 health facilities; the economic livelihoods of local communities, inter alia, have also been severely impacted by the earthquake.
In Central Sulawesi, over 2,096 people are known to have died as a result of the disaster, with more than 4,438 people seriously injured and 1,373 people missing. 68,451 houses are estimated to have been directly damaged and over 173,522 people are displaced. Affected public service Infrastructure includes 176 health facilities (among which two hospitals, in Palu city and Parigi Moutong, have been severely impacted) and 1509 education buildings (ranging from elementary schools to universities). Local economic infrastructure has not been immune to damage: 13 market places and 9718 ha of agricultural land have been adversely impacted- with extensive losses being reported in other sectors, such as fisheries and public administration.
The programmatic response. Beyond the immediate humanitarian and relief assistance, UNDP has initiated engagements with national and local governments and international partners in support of Central Sulawesi and NTB's recovery efforts. The Sulawesi / Lombok Programme for Earthquake and Tsunami Infrastructure Reconstruction Assistance (‘PETRA’ in short) has been designed to contribute to such transition: from the immediate response to longer-term recovery.
The ultimate goal of PETRA is to contribute to the rehabilitation and reconstruction of key infrastructure to support the resilient recovery of disaster-affected communities in both provinces. It addresses the need to accelerate the restoration of critical public services (such as health and education). improve economic livelihood opportunities for affected communities (both men and women), while, at the same time, enhancing resilience to future shocks in both provinces.
It will be guided and informed by gender-sensitive post-disaster needs assessments and will be fully aligned with relevant national and sub-national recovery plans.
PETRA will deliver two outputs, namely: (a) Rehabilitation and reconstruction of partially and fully damaged infrastructure for critical public services which consider gender needs and other gender concerns; and (b) Rehabilitation of affected communities' economic infrastructure to promote more resilient and sustainable livelihoods for both men and women.
Lessons learned and knowledge generated by the Project will also be leveraged to inform wider efforts-in other provinces and/or at national level.
PETRA-supported investments will be delivered through coordinated, inclusive and well-informed (national and sub-national) decision-making processes, with due attention to vulnerable populations and the need to promote gender-sensitive development. 'Build back better principles will be reflected throughout the initiative, with a view to enhance the safety, resilience, energy efficiency, and more gender-friendly of the local infrastructure. Accessibility considerations (to enable and facilitate physical access to persons with disabilities) will also inform the design of infrastructure rehabilitation or reconstruction projects. Best practice in social and environmental standards will also be adopted by the Project.
Project will contribute in the promotion of gender equality by giving consideration to gender concerns, encouraging gender equality in participation, gender equal access and control over livelihood resources and women's leadership. PETRA will consult with women's organizations and gender stakeholders in project's implementation cycle, including at decision making processes Project will support in tackling gender barriers for equality.
PETRA's objectives are aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as well as with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. Very importantly, the project will be guided and informed by nationally-led and locally driven recovery efforts, with a view to ensure full national and local ownership and sustainability.