In 2011, UNDP, in close partnership with the Government of Indonesia, worked to ensure policy and regulatory frameworks were in place to increase Indonesia’s resilience to crisis and external shocks. UNDP has also continued to strengthen the capacity of national and subnational institutions, and that of multistakeholder forums, in conflict prevention, postcrisis recovery, and risk reduction. Assistance to these institutions and forums has included support to the development and application of appropriate crisis management tools and mechanisms.
Strengthening conflict prevention
UNDP’s conflict prevention programmes work towards strengthening government and civil society capacity to identify and manage conflict and their wider social, economic, and political impacts. The objective is to ensure that, by 2015, a robust policy framework is in place, matched with a coordinated institutional arrangement, and funds for on-the-ground initiatives that can help to prevent future conflicts
Effective conflict identification and management is dependent upon sound policy and institutional frameworks to guide government and wider community efforts. Policy frameworks must also help to shift emphasis from a reactive, securitydriven response to conflict towards a proactive approach of conflict prevention, which seeks to improve social welfare and promote the development of communities over the medium- to long-term in order to preempt conflict and community discontent.
Since 2006, UNDP has worked to strengthen conflict-related policy and institutional frameworks, through the Peace Through Development (PTD) project jointly funded by the governments of the Netherlands, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and Sweden. In 2011, this project helped facilitate the drafting of a national bill on social conflict management, which extends greater powers to subnational governments in conflict management. The bill also prioritizes social welfare efforts over security approaches to conflict management.
The bill, which is expected to be passed in 2012, incorporates international standards and best practices on conflict management. At the subnational level, the project helped facilitate the drafting of a number of regulations on conflict prevention and management.
During the late 1990s to the early 200s, sectarian conflict in Maluku, Central Sulawesi and North Maluku impacted social welfare and development in communities. Mainstreaming conflict-sensitive approaches into development planning is considered an important tool for conflict prevention and management. For this reason, in 2011, PTD supported eight districts in Central Sulawesi, Maluku and North Maluku to pass local regulations on conflict-sensitive planning. These interventions are expected to provide the foundation for longer-term peace through ensuring greater participation of disenfranchised communities in development planning processes and more equitable development for all.
Improving post-crisis recovery responsiveness
The aim of UNDP’s support in this area is to ensure that by 2015, both government and civil society organizations can demonstrate a stronger, faster and more effective response to disasters and conflict.
In 2011, UNDP worked with the Government of Indonesia and civil society to develop effective institutional frameworks and tools that strengthen and improve efficiency of response.
The 2004 tsunami in Aceh and 2005 earthquake in Nias sparked the first government-led, largescale recovery effort and exposed important weaknesses in Indonesia’s institutional and regulatory framework including the lack of a dedicated disaster management agency to effectively respond to disasters. Since then, a pivotal process of institutional reform has begun.
UNDP supports the new National Agency for Disaster Management (BNPB), established in 2008, to strengthen its ability to manage postdisaster recovery efforts. During 2009-2011, UNDP worked in close collaboration with BNPB to refine concepts, methodologies and instruments to assess recovery needs.
Through the Disaster Risk Reduction-based Rehabilitation and Reconstruction (DR4) project, UNDP has been working with partners to develop an Indonesia-specific Post Disaster Needs Assessment (I-PDNA) methodology and tools, based on the global PDNA framework jointly developed by the World Bank, European Union and United Nations Development Group (UNDG). The methodology and tools serve as important references for the development of post-disaster action plans for rehabilitation and reconstruction. The I-PDNA not only captures the physical damage and losses, but also incorporates an assessment of human recovery needs.
BNPB has improved its capacity to apply evidence-based approaches to recovery planning, and the application of the I-PDNA will help to reduce recovery response time and improve recovery coordination. A strengthened recovery framework is contributing to the mainstreaming of recovery into national planning and budgeting, and to the recognition of the need to prioritize disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives in rehabilitation and reconstruction. BNPB has led the process of developing a legal framework for the I-PDNA, which resulted in the enactment of a Ministerial Decree in late 2011 ensuring that the guidelines will form the basis for all future post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction efforts.
At the subnational level, UNDP, with funding from the Multi Donor Fund for Aceh and Nias, continued to support recovery efforts in Aceh and Nias in the fields of governance, livelihoods, infrastructure, environment, risk reduction and social cohesion, while also assisting rehabilitation and recovery in Mentawai, Yogyakarta and Central Java. Partnerships between the national and provincial governments have been strengthened, while subnational government agencies have enhanced capacity to take up leading roles in coordinating on-going recovery efforts and aligning these with longer-term provincial development plans.
Moving towards disaster risk reduction
Over the course of 2012-2015, UNDP is supporting the Government of Indonesia and communities to substantially reduce and minimize the adverse impact of disasters through the application of disaster risk reduction policies, regulations and practices.
Changes to the national and subnational policy and regulatory framework have seen a shift from a more reactive approach to disaster relief and response to a disaster management approach, which focuses on longer-term risk reduction. UNDP is working in partnership with the Indonesian Government to promote the integration of risk reduction into development processes, and the government has included disaster risk reduction as one of its key development priorities in the National Medium-Term Development Plan (2010-14).
Two additional strategic plans have also been formulated: the National Disaster Management Plan (2010-2014); and the National Action Plan for Disaster Risk Reduction (2010-2012). These plans serve as the basis for implementing disaster management and risk reduction measures at the national and subnational levels.
In line with its global commitment to allocate one per cent of its national development budgetto disaster risk reduction, the Government of Indonesia has increased resource allocations from the national budget to over US $ one billion in 2011, a two-fold increase from 2010. Currently, 11 of the 25 line ministries have special working units devoted to disaster-related issues, and 12 percent of the provinces have formulated disaster management regulations. With UNDP’s support, four provinces and one municipality have prepared and endorsed disaster management regulations.
There have also been significant changes to the institutional landscape, with all 33 provinces establishing disaster management agencies. UNDP has also facilitated the establishment of DRR forums including one national, nine provincial and one municipal level forum. These platforms, which bring together various stakeholders from government, civil society and the private sector to support the national and local governments in their risk reduction initiatives, have been critical in ensuring disaster risk reduction becomes ‘everybody’s business’. Risk maps have also been developed in five provinces, which in turn informed the formulation of a standardized national risk assessment methodology and guideline adopted by BNPB.
DRR tools have been adopted and applied by communities. Greater community awareness about DRR is linked to strong community preparedness and resilience in responding to disasters. Information and strategies on DRR have been integrated into school curricula and 40 villages across six provinces have developed plans to increase their preparedness.