Cooperation on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and land Degradation (REDD+)
What We Do
As the world’s third largest area of tropical rainforest on the planet, with 68 per cent of its landmass – equivalent to 131.3 million hectare area covered by forests, Indonesia has been struggling to save its forests from mass destruction due to the conversion of these forests and carbon-rich peat lands. Deforestation in Indonesia has a massive environmental impact on the country and the world, as it emits a large amount of greenhouse gases that accelerate climate change.
A recent study published in June 2014 suggests that between 2000 and 2012, Indonesia lost 16 million hectares of forest cover – an area the size of Greece – of which 38% or 6 million hectares were primary forest – an area half the size of England. In 2012 alone, the loss of primary forest in Indonesia was estimated to be higher than that in Brazil (0.84 million hectares and 0.46 million hectares, respectively).
To tackle climate change, Indonesia expressed its commitment at the G20 Summit in Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh Declaration) in September 2009 to reduce Indonesia’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26 per cent by 2020, and contingent on the provision of international financial support, further committed to a 41 per cent reduction against business as usual targets. Following that commitment, the Government of Indonesia and the Government of the Kingdom of Norway signed a Letter of Intent (LoI) on 26 May 2010 to establish the ‘Cooperation on Reducing greenhouse gas Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+)’, facilitated by the UNDP Indonesia.
REDD+ is a global mechanism to provide economic incentives to developing or emerging economies like Indonesia to reduce GHG emissions from deforestation and forest and peat lands degradation which accounts for nearly 20 per cent of global emissions and 50 per cent of national emissions.
The Norwegian government has committed to contribute up to USD 1 billion for Indonesia’s REDD+ efforts. The largest share of this commitment will be made available based on verified emissions reduction against a business as usual emission scenario. Such financial support will drive Indonesia’s efforts to promote a low carbon ‘Green Growth’ and to substantially shift the country’s overall development trajectory.
In September 2011, the REDD+ Task Force was formed (Presidential Decree No. 25/2011) and responsible for the establishment of REDD+ financing mechanism; the preparation of Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) institutions and the effective implementation of a moratorium prohibiting the issuance of forest use licenses in peat lands and primary forests.
In September 2012, the REDD+ Task Force launched the National REDD+ Strategy. The strategy is a non-binding document which lays the groundwork for REDD+ planning, including the institutional setting and guidance for implementation. As part of the on-going efforts led by the REDD+ Task Force, a joint Secretariat (Sekretariat Bersama – Sekber) was launched in the first official REDD+ Pilot Province, Central Kalimantan. The Sekber coordinates the joint REDD+ initiatives of the Task Force and the local government.
In September 2013, the National REDD+ Agency (Badan Pengelola REDD+ – BP REDD+) was created with the Presidential Decree (Peraturan Presiden – PP) No. 62/2013. This pivotal decree legally establishes a new non-structural governmental institution (Lembaga Non Struktural – LNS), with the following mandate:
- Reduce emissions from deforestation;
- Reduce emissions from forest and/ or peat land degradation;
- Maintain and increase the carbon stock through forest conservation, sustainable forest management, and/ or rehabilitation or restoration of degraded forest area; and
- Provide benefits to the improvement of environment services, bio-diversity and welfare of the local/indigenous community.
The latter item speaks to the Agency’s agenda “Beyond Carbon, More Than Forest” which recognizes that REDD+ is does not only contribute to the mitigation of climate change globally but also puts Indonesia on the path of sustainable and equitable stewardship of the land, its inhabitants and its natural resources.
Since its introduction in 2010, the national REDD+ programme has already reached major results:
- REDD+ National Strategy and Provincial Strategies and Action Plans produced
- REDD+ Agency established, Fund for REDD+ in Indonesia (FREDDI) and MRV Framework designed
- Moratorium prohibiting the issuance of forest use licenses in peat lands and primary forests in place, monitored six-monthly and extended until May 2015.
- Forest and Land Fire (Karhutla) Management Systems released and available
- Forest and peat land governance enhanced through legal review of concessions and legal actions against moratorium infringement.
- Community-based REDD+ programmes undertaken in Central Kalimantan, Jambi, Riau and West Kalimantan to demonstrate the benefits of REDD+.
REDD+ is now being rolled out progressively in the 11 most forested provinces of Indonesia as the programme enters its second phase and will eventually cover the entire country. REDD+ Phase 2 is a phase of transformation from identified successes towards large-scale programmes. The programme aims to demonstrate results in reducing emissions which will make Indonesia eligible for performance-based payments through REDD+ projects. Projects must comply with social and Environmental Safeguards (PRISAI) the Monitoring, Reporting and Verification, as recommended by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). REDD+ Phase 2 will build upon key results of the first phase, and emphasise preparedness of key institutions to reach its objective of emission reduction.
With Phase 2, the institutions and frameworks established will be trialled in a select number of areas in the lead up to nation-wide rollout and transition to a full performance-based payment system to be operational in Phase 3 of the Partnership by 2017.
UNDP Indonesia Country Office
Menara Thamrin 8-9th Floor
Jl. MH Thamrin Kav. 3